Tuberc Respir Dis > Volume 69(2); 2010 > Article
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 2010;69(2):75-80.
DOI:    Published online August 1, 2010.
Critical Care Medicine.
Jie Hae Park, Jin Nyeong Chae, Won Il Choi
Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
The year of 2009~2010 brought a number of concepts and new ideas were evaluated with promising results. However, some studies that challenged many beliefs. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), recent clinical studies took into consideration of pathophysiologic changes of respiratory system compliance. Meta-analysis of positive end-expiratory pressure trials showed survival benefit of high positive end-expiratory pressure in ARDS. Until now, prone positioning did not show survival benefit in patients with ARDS. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) based management improved survival in patients with severe ARDS. ECMO can be a management option in severe ARDS. Sedation is a standard practice in critically ill patients needing mechanical ventilation. However, Danish group reported less sedation of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation was associated with an increase in days without ventilation. Although this single center study has some limitations, the overall results are promising. Use of maximal sterile barrier precautions (mask, sterile gown, sterile gloves, and large sterile drapes) with chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing reduced central venous catheter related infection. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination (application of topical antibiotics in the oropharynx) reduced the mortality rate of an intensive care unit (ICU) population. Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial reported intensive glucose control increased mortality among adults in the ICU. Some of the results of above papers are promising. However, some ideas may need for more frequent individual assessment and increase the workload of ICU staffs. Before implementation of new practice in ICU, we should take into consideration of individual hospital situation including human and material resources.
Key Words: Critical Care, Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Glucose, Infection

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