Tuberc Respir Dis > Epub ahead of print
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0074    [Epub ahead of print]
Published online July 13, 2022.
Long-Term Outcome of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Review
Yong Suk Jo, M.D 
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Correspondence:  Yong Suk Jo, Tel: 82-2-2258-6067, Fax: 82-2-599-3589, 
Email: lucidyonge@gmail.com
Received: 11 May 2022   • Revised: 26 June 2022   • Accepted: 6 July 2022
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic airway inflammation characterized by fixed airflow limitation and chronic respiratory symptoms, such as cough, sputum, and dyspnea. COPD is a progressive disease characterized by a decline in lung function. During the natural course of the disease, acute deterioration of symptoms leading to hospital visits can occur and influence further disease progression and subsequent exacerbation. Moreover, COPD is not only restricted to pulmonary manifestations but can present with other systemic diseases as comorbidities or systemic manifestations, including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, sarcopenia, and metabolic abnormalities. These pulmonary and extrapulmonary conditions lead to the aggravation of dyspnea, physical inactivity, decreased exercise capacity, functional decline, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality. In addition, pneumonia, which is attributed to both COPD itself and an adverse effect of treatment (especially the use of inhaled and/or systemic steroids), can occur and lead to further deterioration in the prognosis of COPD. This review summarizes the long-term outcomes of patients with COPD. In addition, recent studies on the prediction of adverse outcomes are summarized in the last part of the review.
Key Words: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Outcome, Lung Function, Exacerbation, Mortality


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