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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2020.0158    [Accepted]
Published online January 26, 2021.
Health-Promoting Behaviors, Health Literacy, and Knowledge Level about Smoking-Related Diseases among Smokers and Non-smokers: A Cross-Sectional Study
Cihat Celebi, 1, Ebru Calik-Kutukcu, 2  , Melda Saglam, 2, Cemile Bozdemir-Ozel, 3, Deniz Inal-Ince, 2, Naciye Vardar-Yagli, 2
1Turkish Republic Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Services, Traditional and Complementary Medicine Department, Ankara, Turkey
2Hacettepe University, Faculty of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Ankara, Turkey
3Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Eskisehir, Turkey
Correspondence:  Ebru Calik-Kutukcu, Tel: +90-03123051576/ext.195, 
Email: ebrucalk85@hotmail.com
Received: 21 December 2020   • Revised: 11 January 2021   • Accepted: 26 January 2021
Abstract
Background
Cigarette smoking is an important public health problem. This study aimed to compare health-promoting behaviors, exercise capacity, physical activity levels, health literacy, and levels of knowledge about smoking-related diseases between smokers and non-smokers.
Methods
The study included 71 smokers (mean age=32.69±8.55 years) and 72 non-smokers (mean age=31.88±9.94 years) between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Assessments included the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Godin Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), Cardiovascular Risk Factors Knowledge Level Scale (CARRIF-KL), Asthma/COPD Awareness Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref questionnaire (WHOQoL-Bref [TR]), and Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ).
Results
The number of coronary artery disease risk factors were significantly higher in the smoker group than the non-smoker group (p=0.001). Smokers had significantly lower %6MWT distance than non-smokers (84.83±4.72, 93.45±7.16 respectively, p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the smokers and non-smokers in terms of physical activity, CARRIF-KL, HLQ, WHOQoL-Bref, and HPLP-II subscales or total scores (p>0.05). Otherwise, while only forty-one (57.7%) of the smokers were active, 48 (66.7%) of the non-smoker group was active.
Conclusion
Exercise capacity is negatively affected in smokers compared to non-smokers. Although smokers and non-smokers have similar levels of health literacy and knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors and obstructive lung diseases, health professions could contribute to increase individuals’ awareness of smoking-related risk factors, the importance of physical activity and exercise for protecting cardiopulmonary health.
Key Words: Smoking, physical activity, healthy lifestyle, health literacy
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