Tuberc Respir Dis > Volume 49(6); 2000 > Article
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 2000;49(6):760-773.
DOI:    Published online December 1, 2000.
The Clinical Study of Hemoptysis in Lung Disease.
Hyang Ju Lee, Hye Suk Um, Jung Tae Kim, Dong Ill Cho, Nam Soo Rhu
Hemoptysis is a common clinical symptom responsible for 11% of admission to the hospital chest service. In KOREA pulmonary tuberculosis is still the most common cause of hemoptysis and the incidence of hemoptysis due to neoplasia has increased. Bronchoscopy and high resonance CT are essential for diagnosis of the cause of hemoptysis. We studied the causes, diagnostic tools and treatment treatment of hemoptysis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical profiles, radiologic and bronchoscopy findings and treatments of hemoptysis for 220 patients who were admitted to our hospital with hemoptysis between 1994 and 1998. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 49.3 years and male to female ratio was 2.1:1. The main causes were active pulmonay pulmonary tuberculosis in 72 cases(32.7%), inactive pulmonary tuberculosis with sequlae in 69 cases(31.4%) lung cancer in 43 cases(19.5%), bronchiectasis in 10 cases(4.5%), and chronicbronchitis in 10 cases(4.5%). The mean amount of hemoptysis for 24hrs was 120cc. The mean duration of bleeding was 25 days. The number of cases with a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis were 128 cases, in which 24 were relapsed tuberculosis cases, 25 chronic tuberculosis cases, 69 inactive tuberculosis cases, and 10 lung cancer cases. High resonance CT was the most useful method for structural etiologic evaluation of hemoptysis developed in patients with inactive tuberculosis, bronchiectasis and aspergilloma. sputum study and bronchofiberscopy were the confirmative diagnostic tools for active pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. The treatments of hemoptysis medical in 152 cases(71.7%), bronchial artery embolization in 39 cases(17.8%), and operation in 9 cases(4.0%). The mean following up duration was 22.4 months. The overall outcomes of hemoptysis were controlled in 77 cases (43.5%), rebleeding in 100 cases (56.5%) and expired in 9 cases (4.0%). The outcomes of hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis were controlled in 21.6%, rebleeding in 78.4%, and expire in 14.7%. CONCLUSION: The most common cause of hemoptysis was related with pulmonary tuberculosis. HRCT was an important diagnostic tool in AFB smear negative active pulmonary tuberculosis and inactive tuberculosis with sequelae. Early, proper management of pulmonary tuberculosis is important for prevention of hemoptysis in Korea.
Key Words: Hemoptysis, Causes, Treatment

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