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Tuberc Respir Dis > Volume 61(6); 2006 > Article
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 2006;61(6):554-561.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2006.61.6.554    Published online December 1, 2006.
The Clinical Manifestation of Pulmonary Infection in AIDS Patients.
Jae Woo Jung, , Jin Won Chung, , Ju Han Song, , Eun Ju Jeon, , Young Woo Lee, , Jae Cheol Choi, , Jong Wook Shin, , In Whon Park, , Byoung Whui Choi, , Jae Yeol Kim,
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea. jykimmd@cau.ac.kr
Abstract
BACKGROUND
In AIDS patients, the respiratory tract is one of the most frequently involved site of by an opportunistic infection, and an even common, casual pulmonary infection manifests in a peculiar ways in AIDS patients. In Korea, because of the low prevalence of AIDS, there is insufficient data compared with other Southeast Asian counties. However, considering the sexual behavior of the younger generation, it is expected that it will not be long before AIDS becomes a major public health issue in Korea. This study examined the clinical manifestation of HIV positive people and AIDS patients. The pulmonary manifestion of HIV-positive was evaluated. This study focused on the differences in the clinical manifestation between AIDS patients with pulmonary disease and simple HIV positive people. The characteristics of common pulmonary infections in AIDS patients were also analyzed. METHOD: The medical records of 28 HIV positive patients who visited the hospital of ChungAng University Hospital from January, 2001 to February, 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULT: Twenty-seven patients out of 28 HIV positive patients were male and the average age was 40.6(23-65). Patients in their thirties were most commonly affected. Elven patients had pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary tuberculosis (4 cases) and pneumocystis pneumonia (4 cases) were the most common respiratory infection. One patient showed a peculiar type of systemic cryptococcus. which was accompanied by lung and pleural dissemination. The CD4+lymphocyte count of patients with a pulmonary infection was significantly lower in patients with a pulmonary manifestation than those with only a HIV infection (79.5/mm3 vs 400/mm3, respectively)(p<.05). Patients with pulmonary disease were in a more severe immunosuppressive state. There were 4 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 4 with pneumocystis pneumonia, 4 with secondary syphilis, 2 with primary syphilis, and 2 with HZV infection. The average CD4 lymphocyte counts was 56/mm3 in those with pulmonary tuberculosis, 42/mm3 in those with pneumocystis pneumonia, and 455/mm3 in those with secondary syphilis. CONCLUSION: This study examined the clinical manifestation of HIV positive patients, particularly AIDS patients with pulmonary disease, A more severe immunosuppressive status was observed in HIV-related pulmonary compared with those with HIV-related extrapulmonary disease, and the frequency of pulmonary tuberculosis in pulmonary disease was higher than expected. Respiratory infection in AIDS manifest in uncommon ways e.g. disseminated cryptococcosis involving the lung and pleura. Evidently, AIDS patients with a respiratory infection have a more severe form of immunosuppression than those with a simple HIV infection. As expected, patients with a pulmonary infection were in a more severe immunosuppressed state than those with a simple HIV infection. Opportunistic infections can show peculiar clinical presentations in AIDS patients.
Key Words: HIV, AIDS, Pulmonary infection


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